Le cittá sono la ricchezza delle nazioni

Un nuovo modo di vedere l’economia

200 anni di teorie economiche da buttare

Posted by janejacobs su marzo 9, 2008

Adam Smith ed i suoi seguaci hanno sbagliato l’unita’ di misura con cui analizzare l’economia ed i mercati. Ancora oggi i governatori delle economie mondiali ed i banchieri centrali non sono in grado di governare l’economia, perche’ continuano a sbagliare l’unita’ di misura.

L’unita’ di misura dell’economia non sono le nazioni, ma le citta’.

Quando i nostri governantori capiranno questo concetto, potranno ricominciare a pensare a nuovi e piu’ efficienti modi per governare l’economia senza creare disastri. Partendo dalle citta’!

Le citta’ sono la ricchezza delle Nazioni (Cities and the Wealt of Nations, 1984) e’ il piu’ importante trattato economico di Jane Jacobs. Le principali idee di questo trattato sono:

1) Uno dei grandi errori della teoria economica e’ stato ritenere che le nazioni sono le entita’ fondamentali per misurare l’economia. Secondo Jane Jacobs sono le citta’ e non le nazioni a costruire i mattoni su cui si basa l’economia. Per capire le dinamica della crescita economica, bisogna guardare alle economie delle citta’.

2) La teoria che le citta’ sono il fondamento dell’economia ha importanti conseguenze per capire la crescita economica.  Le citta’ sono insediamenti dove nuovi lavori si aggiungono continuamente a vecchi lavori. Questa semplice osservazione  viene spesso sottovalutata. Nelle citta’, nuove attivita’ nascono da attivita’ che gia’ esistevano. Non esiste una generazione spontanea di lavoro proveniente dal nulla. Infatti, “trapiantare” investimenti in zone improduttive, come sostengono i soloni del Fondo Monetario Internazionale, della Banca Mondiale e dell’Unione Europea, non porta a nessun risultato. Aggiungere nuovi lavori a lavori esistenti produce invece un circolo virtuoso,perche’ i lavori si moltiplicano e diversificano come i rami di una quercia. Maggiore diversificazione del lavoro porta a maggiore crescita di nuovo lavoro.

3) Il grande motore di crescita delle citta’ e’ il rimpazzo delle importazioni. Tale rimpiazzo delle importazioni non e’ il frutto di politiche protezionistiche. Quello che Jane Jacobs descirive e’ un processo che si evolve naturalmente perche’ frutto di processi economici naturali. Il rimpiazzo delle importazioni e’ semplicemente il processo secondo cui un bene che e’ stato comprato precedentemente al di fuori di una citta’, ora si produce all’interno della citta’.

4) Questo semplice processo ha molti effetti benefici. Allarga l’economia di una citta’ creando nuove divisioni del lavoro che va a produrre beni che prima venivano importati. Il rimpiazzo delle importazioni aumenta la diversita’ delle citta’, crea nuove industrie e nuovi prodotti, libera il capitale che prima era impiegato per le importazioni di beni e rende tale capitale disponibile per la creazione di nuove imprese e posti di lavoro. Naturalmente, una parte residua del capitale viene usata per nuove importazioni; e mentre il mercato esterno di quel bene che e’ stato rimpiazzato decresce, il mercato generale dei beni aumenta.

5) Le importazioni svolgono un ruolo centrale. Sono la causa principale del processo di creazione della ricchezza che avviene nelle citta’. Le importazioni rappresentano nuove fonti di beni e servizi che possono essere rimpiazzate dalle industrie all’interno delle citta’. Quindi sono la forza che genera la crescita. Quanto le citta’ usano i fondi delle esportazioni per importare beni e successivamente li rimpiazzano producendoli al loro interno, allora le citta’ crescono. Se le importazioni non sono rimpiazzate, le citta’ non crescono. Questo e’ il motivo per cui i piani di sviluppo orientati alle esportazioni hanno fallito miserevolmente.

6) Le esportazioni sono anch’esse un processo chiave. Ma non tutte le esportaizoni sono uguali. Cio’ che e’ importante per una citta’ e’ avere un elevato moltiplicatore di esportazioni. Il moltiplicatore di esportazioni descrive il numero di lavori  generati dalle esportazioni e dai consumi esterni di una citta’. Le citta’ inerti hanno un basso moltiplicatore, perche’ buona parte dei guadagni dalle esportazioni, invece di comprare materie prime a costi relativamente bassi (ad esempio l’oro), vanno a comprare prodotti ad alto valore aggiunto (ad esempio una collana d’oro).  

Continua… 

 

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